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Realtime apps in AWS with SST

Use SST to build and deploy a realtime chat app to AWS.

We are going to use SST to build and deploy a realtime chat app on AWS.

Before you get started:

  1. Configure your AWS credentials
  2. Install the SST CLI

1. Create a project

Let’s start by creating a Node.js app.

Terminal window
npx create-next-app@latest my-realtime-app
cd my-realtime-app

Init SST

Now let’s initialize SST in our app. Make sure you have the CLI installed.

Terminal window
sst init

This’ll detect that you are in a Next.js project and create a sst.config.ts file in the root.

Start dev mode

Start the dev mode for your Next.js app and link it to SST.

Terminal window
npm run dev

2. Add Realtime

Let’s add the Realtime component and link it to the Next.js app. Update your sst.config.ts.

async run() {
const realtime = new"MyRealtime", {
authorizer: "authorizer.handler",
new"MyWeb", {
link: [realtime],

This component allows us to set up topics that can be subscribed to. The authorizer function can be used control who has access to these.

Add an authorizer

Add the following to a new authorizer.ts file in your project root.

import { Resource, RealtimeAuthHandler } from "sst";
export const handler = RealtimeAuthHandler(async (token) => {
const prefix = `${}/${Resource.App.stage}`;
// Validate token
return {
publish: [`${prefix}/*`],
subscribe: [`${prefix}/*`],

Here we are saying that a user has access to publish and subscribe to any topic namespaced user the app and stage name. In production, we would validate the given token against our database or auth provider.

3. Create the chat UI

Now let’s create a chat interface in our app. Create a new component in components/chat.tsx with the following.

"use client";
import { useState, useEffect } from "react";
import { iot, mqtt } from "aws-iot-device-sdk-v2";
import styles from "./chat.module.css";
export default function Chat(
{ topic, endpoint, authorizer }: { topic: string, endpoint: string, authorizer: string }
) {
const [messages, setMessages] = useState<string[]>([]);
const [connection, setConnection] = useState<mqtt.MqttClientConnection | null>(null);
return (
<div className={}>
{connection && messages.length > 0 &&
<div className={styles.messages}>
{, i) => (
<div key={i}>{msg}</div>
onSubmit={async (e) => {
const input = ( as HTMLFormElement).message;
input.value = "";
connection ? "Ready! Say hello..." : "Connecting..."
<button type="submit" disabled={connection === null}>Send</button>

Here we are going to publish a message that’s submitted to the given topic. We’ll create the realtime connection below.

Add some styles.

.chat {
gap: 1rem;
width: 30rem;
display: flex;
padding: 1rem;
flex-direction: column;
border-radius: var(--border-radius);
background-color: rgba(var(--callout-rgb), 0.5);
border: 1px solid rgba(var(--callout-border-rgb), 0.3);
.messages {
padding-bottom: 0.125rem;
border-bottom: 1px solid rgba(var(--callout-border-rgb), 0.3);
.messages > div {
line-height: 1.1;
padding-bottom: 0.625rem;
.form {
display: flex;
gap: 0.625rem;
.form input {
flex: 1;
font-size: 0.875rem;
padding: 0.5rem 0.75rem;
border-radius: calc(1rem - var(--border-radius));
border: 1px solid rgba(var(--callout-border-rgb), 1);
.form button {
font-weight: 500;
font-size: 0.875rem;
padding: 0.5rem 0.75rem;
border-radius: calc(1rem - var(--border-radius));
background: linear-gradient(
to bottom right,
rgba(var(--tile-start-rgb), 1),
rgba(var(--tile-end-rgb), 1)
border: 1px solid rgba(var(--callout-border-rgb), 1);
.form button:active:enabled {
background: linear-gradient(
to top left,
rgba(var(--tile-start-rgb), 1),
rgba(var(--tile-end-rgb), 1)

Install the npm packages.

Terminal window
npm install aws-iot-device-sdk-v2

Add to the page

Let’s use the component in our page. Replace the Home component in app/page.tsx.

import { Resource } from "sst";
import Chat from "@/components/chat";
const topic = "sst-chat";
export default function Home() {
return (
<main className={styles.main}>
<div className={}>
alt="Next.js Logo"

Here we are going to publish and subscribe to a topic called sst-chat and it’s namespaced under the name of the app and the stage our app is deployed to.

4. Create a connection

When our chat component loads, it’ll create a new connection to our realtime service. Add the following below the imports in components/chat.tsx.

function createConnection(endpoint: string, authorizer: string) {
const client = new mqtt.MqttClient();
const id = window.crypto.randomUUID();
return client.new_connection(
.with_custom_authorizer("", authorizer, "", "PLACEHOLDER_TOKEN")

We are using a placeholder token here. In production this might be a user’s session token.

Now let’s subscribe to it and save the messages we receive. Add this to the Chat component.

useEffect(() => {
const connection = createConnection(endpoint, authorizer);
connection.on("connect", async () => {
try {
await connection.subscribe(topic, mqtt.QoS.AtLeastOnce);
} catch (e) { }
connection.on("message", (_fullTopic, payload) => {
const message = new TextDecoder("utf8").decode(new Uint8Array(payload));
setMessages((prev) => [...prev, message]);
connection.on("error", console.error);
return () => {
}, [topic, endpoint, authorizer]);

Head over to the local Next.js app in your browser, http://localhost:3000 and try sending a message, you should see it appear right away. You can also open a new browser window and see them appear in both places.

5. Deploy your app

Now let’s deploy your app to AWS.

Terminal window
sst deploy

Congrats! Your app should now be live!

SST Realtime Next.js app

Next steps

As a next step you can:

  • Let users create chat rooms
  • Save them to a database
  • Only show messages from the right chat rooms

This’ll help you build realtime apps for production.